in smaller bite-size portions..
Early last week, on June 19th, the U.S. Department of State released the Trafﬁcking in Persons Report of 2013. The purpose of this annual report is to present what is essentially a grading system on how well various governments are approaching the crime of Human Trafﬁcking and the difﬁculties that come with victim identiﬁcation and service provision. In response to this report’s release, The Gray Haven Project interns have taken it upon themselves to present a summary and personal reﬂection on various sections from this report. We know that this report is extremely lengthy and that not many people will actually read the report, so we broke it down into smaller sections in an effort to make it a little more palatable for you..
If you would like to read the entire report or watch the introduction by Secretary of State John Kerry it can be found here: http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/index.htm
Without further ado, let's begin..
What Is Trafficking In Persons?
“Trafficking in persons” and “human trafficking” have been used as umbrella terms for the act of recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for compelled labor or commercial sex acts through the use of force, fraud, or coercion. At the heart of this phenomenon is the traffickers’ goal of exploiting and enslaving their victims and the myriad coercive and deceptive practices they use to do so.
The Face of Modern Slavery
When an adult is coerced, forced, or deceived into prostitution—or maintained in prostitution through one of these means after initially consenting—that person is a victim of trafficking. Under such circumstances, perpetrators involved in recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for that purpose are responsible for trafficking crimes.
Child Sex Trafficking
When a child (under 18 years of age) is induced to perform a commercial sex act, proving force, fraud, or coercion against their pimp is not necessary for the offense to be characterized as human trafficking.
Forced labor, sometimes also referred to as labor trafficking, encompasses the range of activities—recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining—involved when a person uses force or physical threats, psychological coercion, abuse of the legal process, deception, or other coercive means to compel someone to work.
Bonded Labor Or Debt Bondage
One form of coercion is the use of a bond or debt. Some workers inherit debt. Others fall victim to traffickers or recruiters who unlawfully exploit an initial debt assumed as a term of employment. Debt bondage of migrant laborers in their countries of origin, often with the support of labor agencies and employers in the destination country, can also contribute to a situation of debt bondage.
Involuntary Domestic Servitude
Involuntary domestic servitude is a form of human trafficking found in unique circumstances—informal work in a private residence, which, in many cases, flourishes untreated illnesses and, tragically, widespread sexual abuse.
Forced Child Labor
Although children may legally engage in certain forms of work, forms of slavery or slavery-like practices continue to exist as manifestations of human trafficking, despite legal prohibitions and widespread condemnation.
Unlawful Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers
Child soldiering is a manifestation of human trafficking when it involves the unlawful recruitment or use of children—through force, fraud, or coercion—by armed forces as combatants or other forms of labor.
The Department of State prepared this Report using information from U.S. embassies, government officials, nongovernmental and international organizations, published reports, news articles, academic studies, research trips to every region of the world, and information submitted to email@example.com.
The Department places each country in the 2013 TIP Report onto one of four tiers, as mandated by the TVPA. This placement is based more on the extent of government action to combat trafficking than on the size of the problem.
A Tier 1 ranking indicates that a government has acknowledged the existence of human trafficking, has made efforts to address the problem, and meets the TVPA’s minimum standards. Tier 1 represents a responsibility rather than a reprieve. A country is never finished with the job of fighting trafficking.
A Guide To The Tiers
Tier 1- Countries whose governments fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.
Tier 2- Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards.
Tier 2 Watch List- Countries where governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards, and
a) the absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or is significantly increasing;
b) there is a failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons from the previous year;
c) the determination that a country is making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with minimum standards was based on commitments by the country to take additional steps over the next year.
Tier 3- Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so.
Penalties for Tier 3 Countries
Governments of countries on Tier 3 may be subject to certain sanctions, whereby the U.S. government may withhold or withdraw non-humanitarian, non-trade-related foreign assistance.
Demand: What Fuels Trafficking
A Glimpse At How The United States Is Doing
The Local Impact On A Global Problem